Pathological eating disorders and psychological behavioral abnormalities

When it is considered that abnormal eating disorders and related diseases currently affect more people globally than malnutrition, some medical practitioners currently claim that the world The number one health problem is no longer heart disease or cancer, but obesity. According to the World Health Organization (June 2005), obesity has reached global epidemic proportions, with more than 1 billion adults with overweight disease, including at least 300 million clinically obese, and contributing significantly to the global burden of chronic illness and disability. In malnourished developing countries, obesity often coexists with a complex state, with serious social and psychological dimensions affecting almost every age group and socio-economic group. According to the United States Center for Disease Prevention and Prevention (June 2005), over the last 20 years, obesity in adults has grown significantly in the United States. According to the latest data from the National Health Center, 30 percent of the United States aged 20 and older – about 60 million people – are obese. This growth is not limited to adults. The proportion of overweight young people has more than tripled since 1980. Among children and teenagers aged 6 to 19, 16 percent (over 9 million young people) are overweight. 19459002

Morbid obesity A condition called 100 pounds. Or it exceeds the body mass index (BMI), which represents 30 or more. Obesity alone is much greater risk than many other metabolic factors, such as hypertension, insulin resistance, and / or abnormal cholesterol levels, all of which are related to poor nutrition and lack of exercise. The amount is larger than the parts. Each metabolic problem poses a risk of other diseases, but it also multiplies life-threatening diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and stroke, and so on. Chances. 30.5% of Nations, Adults suffer from morbid obesity and two thirds or 66% of adults are overweight as the BMI is over 25. Taking into account that the American population now exceeds 290,000,000, some estimated to be up to 73 million Americans. Certain types of education awareness and / or treatment for treating an abnormal eating disorder or eating disorder. Nutrition patterns are usually seen as pathological problems when weight and / or eating habits (eg Over-consumption, eating, binging, cleaning and / or eating, calorie, etc.); Life that causes shame, guilt and confusion in depression and Anxiety related symptoms that result in poorly adaptive social and / or occupational impairment in the operation.

Considering, For example, a meal that may be just as life-threatening as drug addiction and the same as Socially and psychologically harmful as alcoholism, some of whom suffer from hormonal or metabolic disorders, but most people with obesity simply consume more calories than burns.Good hyper-obesity resulting from gross over-consumption is more like problems inherited from hereditary They are in personality disorders that cause loss of appetite control (Orford, 1985). Binge-eating disorder episodes are partly characterized by the fact that you can not stop or control how much or what you eat (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). Lienard and Vamecq (2004) "auto-addictive" Hypothesis of abnormal eating disorders It is claimed that eating disorders are linked to the abnormal levels of endorphins and share clinical similarities with abuse of psychoactive substances The most important role of endorphins in animals (Food restriction, combined with stress, locomotor hyperactivity). They argue that pathological treatment of eating disorders may lead to two extreme situations: anorexia and excessive ingestion ( Bulimia)

Social Combination and Mortality

Addiction and other mental disorders generally do not develop in isolation. In 1994, the National Compatibility Testing (NCS) Among the non-institutionalized American men and women adolescents and adults (15-54 years old), about 50% of them diagnosed with I. axis were mental disorders during their lifetime. The results of the survey showed that 35% of men had somehow been abused to diagnose mental disorders during their lifetime, and nearly 25% of women experienced severe mood disorder (mostly depression). One important finding in the NCS study was that common morbidity was common among diagnosed disorders. Specifically, it was found that 56% of the respondents with at least one disease had two or more additional abnormalities. These people are estimated to be one third of the US population, or about 43 million (Kessler, 1994) in three or more cases of congenital illness.

McGinnis and Foege (1994) report The most significant mortality factors in the 1990s were tobacco (estimated at 400,000 deaths), diet and activity patterns (300,000), alcohol (100,000), microorganisms (90,000), toxic substances (60,000), Firearms (35,000), Sexual Behavior (30,000), Cars (25,000) and Illicit Drug Use (20,000). Recognizing that the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality is the lifestyle of risky behaviors, the United States Prevention Services Working Group has decided to conduct behavioral counseling interventions in the healthcare environment (Williams and Wilkins, 1996)

Poor prognosis

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Today, we have experienced in history that managing lifestyle and addictions is often a difficult and frustrating task for all concerned. There are recurring failures in all addictions, even using the most effective treatment strategies. But why (eg 47% of patients treated in private treatment programs in the first year after treatment) are relapse (Gorski, T., 2001)? Are Addicted Professionals Due to Acceptance of Failure Like Standards? This bad prognosis has many reasons. Some say that passions are psychosomatically more induced and maintained in the semi-equilibrated strong fields and the retention of multidimensional forces. Others would say that failures are simply due to lack of self-motivation or power. Most agree that lifestyle behaviors pose a serious health risk that deserves attention, but it may not be able to diagnose multiple addicts (with one addiction) simply because of the lack of diagnostic tools and resources. The complexity of assessing and managing addicts [DSC-IV-TRhasnotyetdistinguisheddiagnosisduetothecomplexityofmultiplebehavioralandaddictiveillnesses

The Poly-substance Dependence diagnosis was maintained by a person who repeatedly uses at least three groups of substances over the same 12-month period, but the criteria for diagnosis do not include behavioral abnormalities. Psychological factors affecting health status (DSM-IV-TR, 2000); It is only in Axis I to list ill-adapted health behaviors (eg Overweight, Unsafe Sex Exercises, Excessive Alcohol Use and Drug Use, etc.), If you have a significant influence on the treatment of medical or mental health. Since successful treatment results are a function of thorough surveys, accurate diagnoses, and comprehensive, customized therapeutic planning, it is no wonder that in the field of addictions, except for the exceptional exception, repeated rehabilitation failures and low success rates prevail, When the latest DSM-IV-TR does not contain a diagnosis for multiple addictive behavior abnormalities. Treatment clinics should have a management planning system and a referral network that is equipped to thoroughly assess multiple addictive and mental illnesses and related treatment needs and comprehensively provide education / awareness, prevention strategy groups and / or Addicts Treatment Services Multiple Dependencies. Written treatment goals and goals should be defined for each individual addiction and dimension of each individual. (Visible activity) and measurable.

New Recommended Diagnosis

Limited DSM-IV -TRs & # 146; Diagnostic Abilities, "Poly-Behavioral Addiction" and "# 148" have been suggested for more accurate diagnosis, resulting in more effective treatment.This diagnosis includes the widest category of addictive disorders that includes patient addiction and other compulsive behavioral dependence Causing behavioral patterns of abnormal gambling, religion and / or sex / pornography, etc. A combination of behavioral addictions is just as harmful – psychologically and socially as alcohol and drug abuse – compared with other lifestyle disorders such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, Their behavioral manifestations, their etiology, and their treatment resistance. These are progressive disorders, which include obsessive thinking and compulsive wear In addition, it is characterized by continuous or periodic loss of control and continuous irrational behavior, despite the adverse consequences. The behavioral behavior of periodic or chronic physical, mental, emotional, cultural, sexual and / or spiritual / religious poisoning. These various types of poisoning are produced by repeated obsessive thoughts and coercive practices that are associated with abnormal relationships to any material, person, organization, belief system, and / or activity that alter the mood. An individual has an overwhelming desire, necessity, or coercive power with the presence of a tendency to enhance evidence of compliance with these practices and evidence of tolerance, abstinence, and retreat that always have physical and / or psychological dependence on this Pathological relationship. In addition, there is a 12-month period in which an individual has three or more pathologically affected passion and / or substance use addictions at the same time, but the criteria are not fulfilled from addiction (Slobodzien, J., 2005). In essence, Poly-behavioral addiction is made simultaneously with substances and behaviors (eg substances / nicotine, alcohols and drugs, and / or impulsively or compulsively compelling gambling, Sex and / or Religion, etc.) from multiple physiologically addictive substances.

The Newly Proposed Theory

The Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) is a nonlinear, dynamic, non-hierarchical Model that focuses on multiple risk factors and situational determinants that are similar to disaster and chaos theory In predicting and explaining addictive behavior and decline. There are several types of effects that trigger and work in high-risk situations and affect the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The relapse process includes factors influencing the background (eg Family History, Social Support, Psychopathology of Dependence Years and Co-Patients), Physiological Conditions (eg Physical Depression), Cognitive Processes (eg Self-efficacy, Motivation, Abnormal Abnormalities, The outcomes of expectations), and struggling abilities (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). Simply put, minor changes in individual behavior can result in large-scale qualitative changes at global level, and patterns appearing at the global level of the system can only stem from a number of small interactions.

Hypothesis of ARMS It claims that there is a multidimensional synergistic negative resistance that becomes a single form of treatment for a single dimension of life because the effects of an individual's dependence are dynamically multi-dimensional interactions. The primary focus on the first dimension is not enough. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have not adapted to the multi-dimensional synergistic negative effects of multiple addiction (eg, nicotine, alcohol, obesity, etc.). Behavioral passions have a negative impact on each other and strategies that improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, reduce functional capacity and promote social isolation. Most therapeutic theories today also cover dimensions to diagnose dual diagnosis or co-morbidity or to assess ancillary factors that can play a role in individual primary addiction. The ARMS & # 146; The theory states that a multi-dimensional management plan should be developed for the possible multiple dependencies indicated for each life cycle, alongside the development of the specific goals and objectives of each dimension.

The ARMS acknowledges the complexity and unpredictable nature of lifestyle dependence after the individual's commitment to supporting lifestyle change. The stages of change (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) support the model of motivation, which includes the five stages of change-based thinking: consideration, observation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The ARMS theory supports constructions of self-efficacy and social networks as predictors of future behavior in the life-style risk factors (Bandura, 1977). The Relapse Prevention cognitive-behavior approach (Marlatt, 1985), designed to identify and prevent high-risk relapse situations, is also supported in the ARMS theory.

ARMS continues to promote twelve-step recovery teams, such as food addicts and alcoholics, anonymously, as well as spiritual and religious restoration activities as a means of maintaining effectiveness. The beneficial effects of AA are partially linked to the exchange of a participant's friendly, friendly friendship with the AA membership fellowships who are able to motivate and support abstinence maintenance (Humphreys, K., Mankowski, ES, 1999) and (Morgenstern, J., Labouvie, E., McCrady, BS, Kahler, CW and Frey, RM, 1997). In addition, the approach of AA often results in the development of eye-catching abilities, many of which are similar to those studied in a structured psychosocial treatment environment, leading to a decrease in alcohol consumption (NIAAA, June 2005).

The size of progression

The American Society of Addiction Medicine (146) (2003) and "Patient Placement Criteria for Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition" recognition. This involves interlinking the multiple dimensions of biomedical and spiritual, as well as individual external relationships with his family and with larger social groups. Lifestyle dependencies can affect many domains of the individual's operation and often require multi-mode treatment. True progress, however, requires appropriate interventions and strategies for every dimension of the individual's life.

The ARMS has identified the following seven treatment milestones (dimensions) to: (1) assist doctors in identifying additional motivational techniques that can increase individual awareness for progress: (2) ), The degree of progress of the treatment and (3) the effectiveness of the treatment are measured:

PD- 1. Abstinence / Relapse: Progress Dimension

PD- 2. Bio-Medical / Physical: Progress Dimension

PD- 3. Mental / emotional: Progress Dimension

PD- 4. Social / Cultural: Progress Dimension

PD- 5. Education / Occupation: Progress Dimension

PD- 6. Attitude / Behavior: 7. Spirituality / Re Dangerous: Progress Dimension

Given that addictions are a semi-stable equilibrium force The ARMS philosophy promotes that the effectiveness of positive treatment and successful results are the result of a synergistic relationship, the higher performance, To elevate and combine individuals spiritually & # 146; Multiple lifestyle dimensions by decreasing chaos and increasing flexibility to achieve individual harmony, wellness and productivity

Since chronic lifestyle disorders and disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, alcoholism, drug and behavioral addiction are not Cure, but only manageable – how to effectively treat behavioral abnormality?

An addiction recovery measurement system (ARMS) is a multidimensional integrative assessment, management planning, and tracking progress and treatment outcome measurement tracking system that facilitates quick and accurate recognition and evaluation for the individual's overall life-size dimensions. "ARMS" combines systematically, systematically, interactively and spiritually the following five versatile subsystems that can be individually or combined:

1) The Prognostication System & # 150; Which consists of twelve screening devices to evaluate individual lifestyle dimensions for a comprehensive bio-psychosocial evaluation of the objective 5-axis diagnosis with a score-based Global Functional Score Evaluation

2) The Target Intervention System (TIM) and the Target Progress (A) and (B) for specific target-specific management planning

3) Progress Point System A standard performance-based motivation recovery point system that manages management progress reports in the six life-cycle individual dimensions;

4) Multidimensional tracking system # 150; Using a Tracking Team Surveys (A) and (B) and using the ARMS Evacuation Criteria, a multidisciplinary tracking team is used to design discharge; And

5) Output Output Measurement System # 150; Using the following two measuring instruments: a) Treatment outcome meter (TOM); And b) the Global Gap Assessment (GAP) to assist aftercare management planning.

The National Movement

After the Cold War, the threat of world nuclear war has declined significantly. It is difficult to imagine that comedians can ultimately take advantage of humor in the fact that they are not nuclear warheads but "fried potatoes"; Which destroyed the human race. More seriously, lifestyle disorders and addictions are the main causes of preventative morbidity and mortality, but short preventive behavioral assessments and counseling interventions are less common in healthcare (Whitlock, 2002)

The Preventive Services Working Group concluded that, That effective counseling interventions on personal health practices are more promising to improve overall health than many secondary prevention measures such as routine screening of early illness (USPSTF, 1996). Common health-preserving behaviors include healthy eating, regular exercise, cessation of smoking, proper alcohol use / drug use and responsible sexual practices including condom use and contraceptives

350 national organizations and 250 public health, Mental Health, Pesticides and Environmental Agencies support the United States Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 and # 148; program. This National Initiative recommends that primary care clinics use clinical pre-assessment and brief behavioral counseling for early detection, prevention and treatment of life experiences at each health visit.

To address multi-purpose psychological behavioral addiction, partnerships and co-ordination between service providers, government agencies and community organizations are needed to provide management programs. I encourage you to support US mental health and dependency programs and hope that (ARMS) resources can help you personally fight war against abnormal eating disorders within poly-behavioral addiction

For More Information See:

Poly-behavioral dependence and dependency recovery measurement system,

James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC at

[http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral-Addictions.html]

Anonymous Anonymous Food Addicts: http://www.foodaddictsanonymous.org/

Alcoholic Anonymous: http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/

References

American Psychiatric Association: Mental Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition,

Text review. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731st

American Society of Addiction Medicine {146; S (2003), & # 147; Patient Placement Criteria for

Treatment of substance-related disorders, 3rd Edition,. On June 18, 2005, downloaded:

http://www.asam.org/

Bandura, A. (1977), Self-efficacy: Towards a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review,

84, 191-215.
Brownell, K. D., Marlatt, G. A., Lichtenstein, E., and Wilson, G. T. (1986). Understanding and preventing recession. American Psychologist, 41, 765-782.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Available on June 18, 2005: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/

Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse prevention in the treated care environment. GORSKI-CENAPS web

Healthy People 2010. Opened from June 20, 2005, http://www.healthypeople.gov/

Publications. Available on June 20, 2005: http://www.tgorski.com

Lienard, J. and Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct. 23, 33 (18 Suppl): 33-40.

Marlatt, G. A. (1985). Relapse Prevention: Theoretical basis and overview of the model. G. A.

Marlatt and J. R. Gordon (eds.), Relapse prevention (250-280, New York: Guilford Press.

McGinnis JM, Foege WH (1994). Actual causes of death in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC 20201

Humphreys, K .; Mankowski, E. S.; Moos, R. H .; And Finney, J.W (1999). Better friendship networks and active combat mediate the effects of self-help groups on drugs? Ann Behav Med 21 (1): 54-60.

Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H. H, -U, & Kendler, K.S. (1994). Life expectancy and 12-month incidence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States

States: Results of the National Social Morbidity Survey. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 51, 8-19.

Morgenstern, J.; Labouvie, E.; McCrady, B.S.; Kahler, C.W .; And Frey, R.M. (1997). Consultation with alcoholics after Anonymous: Study on its therapeutic effects and action mechanisms. J Consult Clin Psychol 65 (5): 768-777.

Orford, J. (1985)]. Excessive appetite: The psychological view of addiction. New York: Wiley.

Prochaska, J.O., and DiClemente, C.C. (1984). The transteoretical approach: Crossing the boundaries of therapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5th

Whitlock, E.P. (1996). Intervention of Behavioral Counseling in Primary Care: a evidence-based approach. Am J Prev Med 2002; 22 (4): 267-84.Williams & Wilkins. United States Preventive Services Task Force. Guidelines for Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA.

of the United States of America. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: US ​​Government Press; 2000th

World Health Organization (WHO). Available on June 18, 2005: http://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/

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