Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic-depressive illness, is one of a number of disorders known as mood disorders. Mania and depression, alone or in combination hallmark of mood disorders. Mania is characterized by a feeling of euphoria, which shows the individual's grandiose ideas, boundless energy and need less sleep, and shows great confidence. While the manic state of people & # 39; s thoughts race, they talk too fast, and presented poor judgment. Manics to impulsively spend too much money to commit sexual indiscretion and alienates people of irritability and impatience. Hypomania refers to a milder form of mania that excessive amounts of elation, but does not significantly impair the individual & # 39; s life.
characterized by many symptoms of depression, including feelings of worthlessness, guilt, and sadness. If someone is depressed, life seems empty and depressing. The individuals with depression and difficulty concentrating, he can not make decisions, there is no self-confidence, and can not enjoy activities that were previously enjoyable. Physical symptoms may include weight loss or weight gain, sleep too much or too little, restlessness or lethargy. Depressed people may be preoccupied with death or suicide. You may think that they have committed an unforgivable sin, and that their loved ones would be better without them.
bipolar disorder is so named because they hit you experience both mania and depression, unipolar disorders in contrast to those who had only one wing, usually depression. They are categorized in two types, bipolar I and bipolar II, bipolar disorders. Bipolar I individual experiences both mania and depression; Bipolar II individual experiences hypomania and depression. Mania or hypomania is the key to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. The person who experience the manic state, must be considered once that bipolar disorder. Manic and depressive states immediately precede or follow each other, or they may be separated by long intervals, and an individual may have more episodes one pole than the other. In some people, the so-called rapid cycling, experience four or more episodes per year.
The onset of bipolar disorder younger than unipolar depression usually begins in the late teens or twenties, but he seldom age starts at 40 ., in some cases preceded by a condition called cyclic state of mind, which is a milder form of mood disorder, wherein a marked depression and mood swings, at least two years. Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder and the treatment has less than half of the individuals who experience it will go for five years without a manic or depressive episodes. Bipolar there because of the risk of suicide in depressed and prone to accidental death phase of manic impulsivity and poor judgment.
The causes of bipolar disorder is unclear, but it is likely to be determined by several factors. Family and adoption studies consistently indicate genetic predisposition mood disorders. First-degree relatives of persons with bipolar disorder are much more likely than the general population to experience bipolar depression, unipolar depression and anxiety. At this point, there is no clear evidence that a specific gene is linked to the transmission of bipolar disorder; Instead, it appears that the family history increases the vulnerability of many disorders.
neurotransmitters in the brain extensively studied and is very likely involved in bipolar disorder, but the complexity and interaction as yet unclear. The relationship between neurotransmitters and hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, the pituitary and adrenal glands appear to be significant. There is also speculation that related to bipolar disorder may be the circadian rhythm, for some people with bipolar disorder, especially in the light-sensitive and show abnormalities sleep habits, such as entering REM sleep too quickly, dreams intensely, and missing the deeper stages of sleep .
stressful life events may precipitate episodes of mania or depression, but it does not seem to be the primary cause of bipolar disorder. Psychosocial factors, such as the attribution style, learned helplessness, attitudes and interpersonal relationships all seem to be related to bipolar disorder, but has not been identified causes; they are often the result of such a disorder. It appears that genetic vulnerability combined with stressful events can lead to psychological and socio-cultural bipolar disorder.
Three primary treatment modalities are most commonly used for bipolar disorder. Medication commonly used, particularly lithium. For reasons not yet fully understood, lithium reduce the frequency of episodes, bipolar disorder and many of the lithium is maintained for a long time. The lithium levels must be carefully monitored with blood tests, and there may be side effects such as weight gain, lethargy and renal failure. Because of the side effects of the drug, and because of lack of energy hypomania and manic states, people with bipolar disorder can stop the medication. Newer antidepressants which affect serotonin levels are often used, but there is some suspicion that this can contribute to a faster cycling. Anticonvulsant drugs such as carbamazepine, are also used.
Another treatment method that is sometimes used in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This method only serious cases of uncontrollable behavior or threats of suicide makes it impossible to wait the 2-3 weeks of medication to take effect. ECT is used to treat people who have not responded to other forms of treatment, it is often effective, but it depends on side effects following temporary, short-term memory loss and confusion treatment immediately.
The third psychotherapy treatment approach. While many psychotherapeutic approaches have been tried, cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy is currently the most popular. Cognitive therapy focuses on identifying and correcting the faulty thinking and style of attribution that the customer can obtain cognitive control of emotions. Interpersonal therapy focuses on identifying and resolving personal conflicts in the development of skills that often accompany bipolar disorder. Both psychotherapies are highly structured and short-term. Many people receive a combination of both drugs and psychotherapy to stabilize and prevent relapse.
In addition to dealing with the possible causes of bipolar disorder, a psychotherapist to help cope with the many problems living in the disease. One is that life is hard breaks a & # 39; s life, to that of the manic and depressive states. People might be too sick to work, or home, and even a hospital. Another problem is the withdrawal or deal with inappropriate behavior that was carried out during a manic state in which an individual may spend money recklessly made grandiose promises, and those right things. The third common problem dealing with negative reactions, and distrust of family, friends and co-workers who are in contact with the individual & # 39; and extreme mood swings. Taking medicine regularly for some people fight, a fight that is exacerbated by the tendency of people in a manic or hypomanic states feel that they do not need drugs. Bipolar disorder is engaged in a constant anxiety, feelings that can spin out of control. It often feels helpless and as if the disease control and gain at any time. There is also the question of why God allows people to go through these struggles. Bipolar disorder need therapists who help them exercise over Cognitive their emotions, recognize when it is too high or too low, managing interpersonal relationships, cope with life stresses and understand how to accept it and successfully bipolar disorder.